The dissertation is the most serious kind of academic work. It is the most detailed elaboration of a topic that claims to be conferred on its author a scientific degree. In some countries there are only candidates, which they call doctoral. Recently, in some universities, such types of work as a bachelor’s degree and a master’s thesis have been introduced. However, in fact, these works correspond to the diploma of the old domestically standard.
Any scientific research is topical if it is devoted to a problem that is solved in the interests of contemporary needs of society, insufficiently developed by science, has great socio-economic significance after its solution. Through dissertational research, the dissertant proves the level of his own scientific qualification, the ability to carry out scientific research and solve his own scientific problems.
Officially, the candidate’s thesis is the systematization of the knowledge gained by the researcher in a certain field; doctoral is a scientific discovery based on this systematization. In fact, these works are almost no different, except in volume. The average amount of work of the candidate of sciences is approximately 150 pages, and the doctor of sciences – 200. Defense of the thesis is essentially more serious than the defense of the thesis. It takes place at a meeting of the department, it involves two opponents and two reviewers. Applicants of the doctoral degree do not have scientific supervisors, but there are consultants. The dissertation also has a leading organization – another (non-native) academic institution, which should, as it were, monitor the integrity of the defense.
In addition, long before the defense there is a discussion of the thesis, or its pre-defense. The Institute of Pre-Defense in some universities is applied even for coursework. During this procedure, opponents and reviewers, as it were, warn you of all the shortcomings of your work, so that you can correct them. The doctoral dissertation passes two pre-defense.
Special requirements for the thesis are almost exclusively formal.
First of all, the title page of the dissertation should include the number and title of the specialty. Further, the theses are extremely strictly regulated by the Introduction. Introduction, in fact, is the most important and most readable part of the thesis. It is for the Introduction in this case that the text is judged as a whole.
In addition, the introduction should indicate the publication of the dissertation. The candidate must submit at least one publication, as well as an abstract, before the defense.
The abstract is a short (on average 30 pages) description of the contents of the dissertation, which is subject to publication before its defense. Abstracts are sent to all significant libraries, so you should fill them with text solely of your own production. The dissertant must publish or post in the library of a scientific institution one article (in rare cases, two or three). Most often the article is the most significant and successful part of the thesis. The sequence of administrative steps to defend dissertations is quite complex and is not the subject of this manual. It remains only to say that in fact the dissertational text does not exceed the degree thesis. It can also be compiled from already ready texts of other authors, including from other dissertations. Only to do this you need a little more cautious because the text of the dissertation is much more accessible to the general public.